Playing with Playwright

Playwright is a new browser automation library from Microsoft:

Playwright is a Node library to automate the Chromium, WebKit and Firefox browsers with a single API. It enables cross-browser web automation that is ever-green, capable, reliable and fast.

I’m a big fan of Puppeteer, so this section in their FAQ stood out to me:

Puppeteer is a Node library which provides a high-level API to control Chrome or Chromium over the DevTools Protocol. Puppeteer project is active and is maintained by Google.

We are the same team that originally built Puppeteer at Google, but has since then moved on. Puppeteer proved that there is a lot of interest in the new generation of ever-green, capable and reliable automation drivers. With Playwright, we’d like to take it one step further and offer the same functionality for all the popular rendering engines. We’d like to see Playwright vendor-neutral and shared governed.

Playwright uses similar concepts to Puppeteer:

“Due to the similarity of the concepts and the APIs, migration between the two should be a mechanical task.”

Luckily I have a demo test suite written in Puppeteer which I have cloned and converted to use Playwright to see how it works, and compares.

Here are my thoughts:

I really, really like the BrowserContext concept

In Puppeteer, and WebDriverJs, you have Browsers and Pages. Each Page in a Browser share the state across the Browser, so to create isolated tests using the same Browser (to avoid the inefficiencies of spawning a Browser per test) you need custom code to delete all cookies and local storage between tests. Playwright solves this with the BrowserContext object which is a new incognito window where its pages are created: each test can use the same browser but a different BrowserContext. Super cool 👌

It automatically waits to click, and supports xpath expressions

Playwright automatically waits for elements to be available and visible before clicking, by default, and also has the same API for xpath expressions, which means this Puppeteer code:

await page.goto( `${ config.get( 'baseURL' )}` );
await page.waitForXPath( '//span[contains(., "Scissors")]' );
const elements = await page.$x( '//span[contains(., "Scissors")]' );
await elements[0].click();
await page.waitForXPath( '//div[contains(., "Scissors clicked!")]' );

becomes a lot cleaner:

await page.goto( `${ config.get( 'baseURL' )}` );
await '//span[contains(., "Scissors")]' );
await page.waitFor( '//div[contains(., "Scissors clicked!")]' );

It supports three “browsers” but not as you know them

Q: Does Playwright support new Microsoft Edge?

The new Microsoft Edge browser is based on Chromium, so Playwright supports it.

Playwright supports three “browsers” but not as you know them. I’d say it supports three rendering engines (Chromium, WebKit & Gecko) rather than Browsers as you can only use the (somewhat modified) browsers that come bundled with Playwright over using an already installed browser on your operating system (like Selenium does). This makes it easier to ensure consistency of test runs since the library is bundled with the browsers, but there are some risks your tests could pass on the bundled browsers but fail on “real” browsers. I would say that the claim it supports running on Microsoft Edge is a little misleading.

I’m unsure of CircleCI Support for WebKit and Firefox

I was able to get my tests running against Chromium on CircleCI using the same configuration as Puppeteer, however I couldn’t get the WebKit or Firefox tests to run on CircleCI even when having the default CircleCI browsers installed. I didn’t want to invest the time, but it is probably due to some headless Linux dependencies missing which could be solved in the project config.


If the only thing Playwright did better than Puppeteer was also supporting WebKit and Gecko then I wouldn’t suggest using it over Puppeteer, since Puppeteer is closely aligned with Chromium, and I’m going to run my tests solely in Chrome/Chromium anyway. I don’t believe in running the same e2e tests in multiple browsers: the maintenance overhead outweighs the benefits in my experience.

However, Playwright offers a much nicer BrowserContext concept, and the xpath support is much nicer (although I rarely use xpath expressions anyway).

If anything I am hoping Puppeteer adds support for BrowserContexts – I’ve raised a feature request here so feel free to comment on it if you think it would be a good idea.

All the sample code is available here:

Using async/await with WebDriverJs

We’ve been using WebDriverJs for a number of years and the control flow promise manager that it offers to make writing WebDriverJs commands in a synchronous blocking way a bit easier, particularly when using promises.

The problem with the promise manager is that it is hard to understand its magic as sometimes it just works, and other times it was very confusing and not very predictable. It was also harder to develop and support by the Selenium project so it’s being deprecated later this year.

Fortunately recent versions of Node.js support asynchronous functions and use of the await command which makes writing WebDriverJs tests so much easier and understandable.

I’ve recently updated my WebDriverJs demo project to use async/await so I’ll use that project as examples to explain what is involved.

WebDriverJs would allow you to write consecutive statements like this without worrying about waiting for each statement to finish – note the use of instead of the usual mocha it function: 'can wait for an element to appear', function() {
	const page = new WebDriverJsDemoPage( driver, true );
	page.childElementPresent().then( ( present ) => {
		assert( present, 'The child element is not present' );
	} );
} );

When you were waiting on the return value from a promise you could use a .then function to wait for the value as shown above.

This is quite a simple example and this could get complicated pretty quickly.

Since the promise manager is being removed, we need to update our tests so they continue to execute in the correct order. We can make the test function asynchronous by adding the async prefix, remove the test. prefix on the it block, and add await statements every time we expect a statement to finish before continuing:

it( 'can wait for an element to appear', async function() {
	const page = new WebDriverJsDemoPage( driver, true );
	await page.waitForChildElementToAppear();
	assert( await page.childElementPresent(), 'The child element is not present' );
} );

I personally find this much easier to read and understand, less ‘magic’, but the one bit that stands out is visiting the page and creating the new page object. The code in the constructor for this page, and other pages, is asynchronous as well, however we can’t have an async constructor!

export default class BasePage {
	constructor( driver, expectedElementSelector, visit = false, url = null ) {
		this.explicitWaitMS = config.get( 'explicitWaitMS' );
		this.driver = driver;
		this.expectedElementSelector = expectedElementSelector;
		this.url = url;

		if ( visit ) this.driver.get( this.url );

		this.driver.wait( until.elementLocated( this.expectedElementSelector ), this.explicitWaitMS );

How we can get around this is to define a static async function that acts as a constructor and returns our new page object for us.

So, our BasePage now looks like:

export default class BasePage {
	constructor( driver, expectedElementSelector, url = null ) {
		this.explicitWaitMS = config.get( 'explicitWaitMS' );
		this.driver = driver;
		this.expectedElementSelector = expectedElementSelector;
		this.url = url;

	static async Expect( driver ) {
		const page = new this( driver );
		await page.driver.wait( until.elementLocated( page.expectedElementSelector ), page.explicitWaitMS );
		return page;

	static async Visit( driver, url ) {
		const page = new this( driver, url );
		if ( ! page.url ) {
			throw new Error( `URL is required to visit the ${ }` );
		await page.driver.get( page.url );
		await page.driver.wait( until.elementLocated( page.expectedElementSelector ), page.explicitWaitMS );
		return page;

In our Expect and Visit functions we call new this( driver ) which creates an instance of the child class which suits our purposes. So, this means our spec now looks like:

it( 'can wait for an element to appear', async function() {
	const page = await WebDriverJsDemoPage.Visit( driver );
	await page.waitForChildElementToAppear();
	assert( await page.childElementPresent(), 'The child element is not present' );
} );

which means we can await visiting and creating our page objects and we don’t have any asynchronous code in our constructors for our pages. Nice.

Once we’re ready to not use the promise manager we can set SELENIUM_PROMISE_MANAGER to 0 and it won’t use it any more.


The promise manager is being removed in WebDriverJs but using await in async functions is a much nicer solution anyway, so now is the time to make the move, what are you awaiting for? 😊

Check out the full demo code at

AMA: Difference between explicit and fluent wait

Anonymous asks…

What is the difference between Explicit wait and Fluent wait?

My response…

I hadn’t heard of fluent waiting before, only explicit and implicit waiting.

From my post about Waiting in C# WebDriver:

Implicit Waiting

Implicit, or implied waiting involves setting a configuration timeout on the driver object where it will automatically wait up to this amount of time before throwing a NoSuchElementException.

The benefit of implicit waiting is that you don’t need to write code in multiple places to wait as it does it automatically for you.

The downsides to implicit waiting include unnecessary waiting when doing negative existence assertions and having tests that are slow to fail when a true failure occurs (opposite of ‘fail fast’).

Explicit Waiting

Explicit waiting involves putting explicit waiting code in your tests in areas where you know that it will take some time for an element to appear/disappear or change.

The most basic form of explicit waiting is putting a sleep statement in your WebDriver code. This should be avoided at all costs as it will always sleep and easily blow out test execution times.

WebDriver provides a WebDriverWait class which allows you to wait for an element in your code.

As for fluent waits, according to this page it’s a type of explicit wait with more limited conditions on it. I don’t believe WebDriverJs supports fluent waits.

Why you should use CSS selectors for your WebDriver tests

I didn’t used to be a fan of CSS selectors for automated web tests, but I changed my mind.

The reason I didn’t use to be a fan of CSS selectors is that historically they weren’t really encouraged by Watir, since the Watir API was designed to find elements by type and attribute, so the Watir API would look something like:

browser.div(:class => 'highlighted')

where the same CSS selector would look like:


Since WebDriver doesn’t use the same element type/attribute API and just uses findElement with a By selector, CSS selectors make the most sense since they’re powerful and self-contained.

The the best thing about using CSS selectors, in my opinion, is the Chrome Dev Tools allows you to search the DOM using a CSS selector (and XPath selectors, but please don’t use XPath), using Command/Control & F:

chrome css selectors
Using CSS selectors to find elements in Chrome Dev Tools

So you can ‘test’ your CSS in a live browser window before deciding to use it in your WebDriver test.

The downside of using CSS selectors are they’re a bit less self explanatory than explicitly using by.className or

But CSS selectors are pretty powerful: especially pseudo selectors like nth-of-type and I’ve found the only thing you can’t really do in CSS is select by text value, which you probably shouldn’t be doing anyway as text values are more likely to change (since they’re copy often changed by your business) and can be localised in which case your tests won’t run across different cultures.

The most powerful usage of CSS selectors is where you add your own data attributes to elements in your application and use these to select elements: straightforward, efficient and less brittle than other approaches. For example:


How do you identify elements in your WebDriver automated tests?

AMA: IE11 Button Clicking in Selenium

Anthony asks…

I have coded to click buttons on IE11/Win7 but the latest version of Selenium IE doesn’t click the buttons correctly most of times. Most of times, it clicks one button below. I thought it might be loading time so added some waiting but still click one button below or two buttons below sometimes. I googled this and found several posting saying Selenium IE doesn’t click buttons well. Now I have moved it to FF but I am still wondering why IE is not accurate. I know a lot of Selenium test developers in the field but they are having the same issue or they know a workaround. What do you think of this issue on IE11? Are you aware of this issue? FYI, the buttons are not regular HTML tag. The menu system with clickable tag is created by javascript. Thank you!

My Response…

We actually don’t run any tests in Internet Explorer any more since these weren’t finding any browser specific bugs (we do exploratory testing in Internet Explorer instead).

But, I have heard of problems generally with the IEDriver tool. If you’re working on a JavaScript generated app I think the best thing for you to do would instead of using a native click in Selenium is instead execute a JavaScript click event. The exact syntax will depend on which language you’re using Selenium in, but it should look something like this:

this.driver.executeScript( 'return arguments[0].click();', webElement );

I hope this solution helps!

Save password prompts in Chrome 57 with WebDriver

When running Selenium WebDriver scripts against the latest version of Chrome (57) it shows a save password prompt that hasn’t appeared previously whilst using Chromedriver, as far as I know.

chrome 57 save password prompt Continue reading “Save password prompts in Chrome 57 with WebDriver”