AMA: Protractor for e2e Testing?

John X asks…

 I have dodged the AngularJS /Protractor bullet for many years now. May last foray, some 5 years ago, was a cluster to put it mildly! Cucumberjs/Angularjs/Protractor/chai/mocha/ the stack was in its infancy and failed miserably!! Many cycles were spent pulling fixes from our own repos instead of waiting for PRs to get done. This was in stark contrast to the ease and stability of the automation I wrote using Watir-Webdriver and eventually Watir.

I am now faced with automating the regression test cases for an Angularjs App.

Question: Do I finally jump back into the using stack that almost caused me to lose my mind, or is it possible to use Watir/Selenium to build out meaningful e2e UI automation for an angularjs app as we dawn on 2019?

My response…

It’s still my opinion in 2018 that writing e2e tests in Node using either Protractor or WebDriverJs is still more difficult than using Watir in Ruby.

Sure using async functions with await commands makes things easier than before (see examples in our project), when you would have first come across Protractor, but I still feel like there’s a lot of catching up to do to get to the stability and ease-of-use of Watir.

My decision would come down to whether others on your project are going to be comfortable maintaining tests in ruby – if they are I’d use Ruby and Watir, otherwise I’d revisit Protractor if they really want to use Node.

AMA: Separate Repository for e2e Tests?

Liam asks…

“I did enjoy reading the article about e2e test on wordpress. I noted that e2e test are in a separate repo.

My question will be what is the workflow to make sure new changes does not break the e2e test on pull request ?

For example, if a developer work on some changes, then they need to change the e2e test first and make sure everything pass, however the environment on the pull request might not be stable, developer can overwrite each other changes”

My response…

Thanks for your question Liam.

We have reasons for and benefits in having the WordPress.com e2e tests in a separate repository:

  1. The e2e tests test the entire WordPress.com experience so these test things that happen in different repositories (for example our Calypso user interface or services/API) and having them in the user interface repository isn’t really representative of what the breadth of their scope;
  2. Making changes to the e2e tests are easier in a separate repository since we don’t have to deploy e2e PRs that don’t contain functional changes (we deploy every merge to our master branch immediately dozens of times per day)

The obvious downsides are:

  1. How do we make sure e2e tests know about incoming AB tests?
  2. How do we couple new changes to updates in the e2e test repository?

For incoming AB tests we make sure that our e2e tests know about the change by ensuring we create a matching PR in our e2e tests that override our AB tests during our test runs.

If someone updates the AB tests in Calypso they’re politely reminded to update the e2e tests:

Screen Shot 2018-09-19 at 3.31.47 pm
example prompt

For making sure e2e tests are up to date we automatically run two (of about 40 total) of the most critical e2e tests (in three browsers) when a PR is ready to be reviewed. These can fail and indicate a change is necessary to the e2e tests (or something is broken!)

There’s also a label we can add to any PR that runs the entire set of e2e tests against a PR running live and reports the result back to that PR:

Screen Shot 2018-09-19 at 3.38.29 pm
e2e Test Results against a Calypso PR

If changes are required to the e2e tests someone can create an e2e PR with the exact same branch name which will be used to run against the feature changes before they are merged. This means PRs can be coupled and tested together but merged separately.

To answer the second part of your question I understand it to be about conflicting changes? One of our key philosophies for work is “merge early and merge often” so we make sure that PRs are short-lived and merged quickly to minimize the chance of conflicts. These still do happen occasionally, we just deal with them as they come up.

Whilst there’s been some downsides to the separate repositories all-in-all the benefits continue to outweigh the downsides but we constantly assess and at any point in time we can easily merge them if need be.

AMA: Iterative vs Incremental Development

Mario asks:

I have a question to ask your post on iterative vs. Incremental Software Development:

https://watirmelon.blog/2015/02/02/iterative-vs-incremental-software-development/

In the incremental approach, the few features implemented in all of their requirements can be changed after user feedback? Or, does this only happen with the iterative approach?

My response:

Thanks for your question Mario. This can, and should, happen with both approaches, but I’d say the incremental approach is actually more likely to get customer/user feedback as it’s a more polished, albeit smaller, user experience, and therefore more likely to land in front of users. The painting analogy isn’t the best as the requirements and level of ‘done’ are pretty clear, but the general rule is to seek feedback as soon as possible, and both approaches are designed to do just that.

AMA: JavaScript in Test Automation

Max asks…

First of all thanks for sharing all your insights on this blog. I regularly try to come back to your blog and I helped me grow as a QA Engineer quite a lot.
I wanted to ask you on your opinion on a seemingly new generation of test tools for the web that are written in JavaScript to help deal with all the asynchronicity on modern front end frameworks. Our company is in the process of redesigning our website and it seems that it just gets harder and harder to deal with all the JavaScript in test automation. I recently started looking into some other tool like cypress.io, but as of now they still seem quite immature.
Could you help me and point me in the right direction?

My response…

I think there’s two parts to the JavaScript asynchronicity issue which are not necessarily related.

Modern JavaScript front-end web frameworks (like React and Angular) are designed to be asynchronous and fast and therefore this can cause issues when trying to write automated tests against them. I don’t believe writing automated tests in an asynchronous way actually makes the tests easier to write, or more maintainable or robust, but just a result of writing these tests in the same way the web frameworks work.

You can write synchronous tests (like using Watir/Ruby) against asynchronous web interfaces, you just need to use the waiting/polling mechanisms (or write/extend your own) – the same as you need to do in asynchronous test automation tools.

We choose WebDriverJS for automated end-to-end testing of our React application as it was the official WebDriver for JavaScript project and seems to be a good choice at the time. I somewhat regret that decision now as using a synchronous third party implementation like webdriver.io seems like an easier way to write and maintain tests.

I have tried to use cypress.io but the way it controls sites (through proxies) has (current) limitations like not working on iFrames and cross-domains which are deal-breakers for our end-to-end testing needs at present.

If you don’t need to write your end-to-end tests in JavaScript I’d say avoid it unless absolutely necessary and stick to another non-asynchronous programming language.

I’m glad I’ve been able to help you grow over the years.

AMA: Clicking a non-visible element in Watir

Mike asks…

Is there any way to make Watir click a link/button that is not visible? I wanted to switch from Capybara/CapybaraWebKit (which allows clicking non-visible elements) but I am stuck since Watir always times out on the click attempt.

My response…

The easiest way to do this is just to execute a click in JavaScript on the object itself.

In Watir, this looks something like:

browser.execute_script( "return arguments[0].click();", browser.link(:id => 'blah')

Hope this helps!

AMA: Misc

Amruth asks…

Hi Scott, I am Amruth and I am from INDIA. I would like to automate my project by using Watir with Ruby. Plz brief me about Watir and Watir-Webdriver.

My response…

I suggest you visit http://watir.com/guides/ and follow the guides. Have fun.


Victor Hugo dos Santos asks…

How we can run our tests parallel when we use Cucumber-JVM?

My response…

I haven’t done this personally, but these instructions look helpful.


Viktoriya Musiy asks…

Just to add: I’ve tried your instruction https://watirmelon.blog/2010/12/09/how-to-set-up-cucumber-and-watir-on-osx/. Unfortunately it does not work on my macbook. I get the error message: You don’t have write permissions for the /usr/bin directory. Viktoriyas-MBP:~ viktoriyamusiy$ sudo gem install rspec –no-rdoc –no-ri Password: ERROR: While executing gem … (Gem::FilePermissionError) You don’t have write permissions for the /usr/bin directory. Viktoriyas-MBP:~ viktoriyamusiy$

My response..

That post is over seven years old so I am not surprised it no longer works. Please try watir.com for up to date instructions.


Niopvief asks…

Food of fried tomatoes like absolutely everything. Guests usually require recipe are surprised mastery hostess. Even guys with pleasure eat fried tomato in breadcrumbs. Tomatoes very good combined are combined with many products. Garlic adds sharpness. Cheese brings ruddy crust. Italian herbs turn roasted tomatoes into a dish from a restaurant. Omelette with tomatoes – easy and nutritious dish for breakfast. Make including sandwiches with fried tomatoes. Cooking tomatoes simply. For cooking use butter. In olive oil – fewer calories. It is also combined mixed with fried cubes tomatoes.

My response…

I am not a big tomato fan but my wife likes them. Thanks for the tips – Merry Christmas

AMA: Difference between explicit and fluent wait

Anonymous asks…

What is the difference between Explicit wait and Fluent wait?

My response…

I hadn’t heard of fluent waiting before, only explicit and implicit waiting.

From my post about Waiting in C# WebDriver:

Implicit Waiting

Implicit, or implied waiting involves setting a configuration timeout on the driver object where it will automatically wait up to this amount of time before throwing a NoSuchElementException.

The benefit of implicit waiting is that you don’t need to write code in multiple places to wait as it does it automatically for you.

The downsides to implicit waiting include unnecessary waiting when doing negative existence assertions and having tests that are slow to fail when a true failure occurs (opposite of ‘fail fast’).

Explicit Waiting

Explicit waiting involves putting explicit waiting code in your tests in areas where you know that it will take some time for an element to appear/disappear or change.

The most basic form of explicit waiting is putting a sleep statement in your WebDriver code. This should be avoided at all costs as it will always sleep and easily blow out test execution times.

WebDriver provides a WebDriverWait class which allows you to wait for an element in your code.

As for fluent waits, according to this page it’s a type of explicit wait with more limited conditions on it. I don’t believe WebDriverJs supports fluent waits.